Complications of High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO)

As like any other surgery, High Tbial Osteotomy has its share of complications
The common complications have been listed below:

Deep Vein Thrombosis:

Deep Vein Thrombosis is the formation of blood clots in the Deep Vein of the legs. This may cause the leg to swell, become warm and tender to touch. Precautions are taken in the form of compression stocking and blood thinners taken before and after High Tibial Osteotomy Surgery to prevent these clots.

Pulmonary Embolism:

When these clots in the deep vein are dislodged they enter the circulation to reach the lungs causing Pulmonary Embolism which a cuts off the blood supply to the lungs.
Prophylaxis of Deep Vein Thrombosis is thus taken very seriously by all Knee Surgeons.


This is prevented by using all sterile precautions during the HTO Surgery.

Scar Tissue Formation:

A scar tissue may form below the Kneecap preventing the Knee to completely straighten. This is prevented by controlling the bleeding during the High Tibial Osteotomy Surgery.

Non-union of Bones:

This is a condition where the cut edges of the bone fail to unite with each other or with the bone graft. This complication may require immobilization or another surgery to insert more bone graft.

Partial Peroneal Nerve Palsy:

Motor branch of Peroneal Nerve supplying the Extensor Hallucis Longus may be injured during Closing Wedge Osteotomy.

Tibial Plateau Fracture:

This can occur at the time of opening the Osteotomy in an Open Wedge Osteotomy.